Gross motor skills are used for larger body movements such as crawling, walking, or running. This control is exhibited at a young age and form the foundation for basic movements such as head and arm movements in babies, pulling and pushing before the age of one, and crawling and running as your child ages. Trouble with these gross motor skills at a young age can signify deeper issues. Our skilled experts can perform an analysis to determine if there are underlying issues and provide direction to improve these skills.

The following gross motor skills should be present based on your child’s age.

Birth-2 months

  • On the stomach, raises head slightly off floor or bed
  • Holds head up momentarily when supported
  • On back, alternates kicking legs when
  • Arm thrusts in play

3-5 months

  • Lifts head and chest when on stomach (props on forearm)
  • Head control improving
  • Some head bobbing in supported sitting
  • Rolls from side to side, stomach to back
  • Sits briefly with arm support
  • Random batting at objects
  • Hands to midline
  • Makes crawling movements

6-8 months

  • Reaches to objects on stomach
  • Pivots around when on stomach
  • Pulls self forward on stomach
  • Rolls from back to stomach
  • Sits alone briefly
  • Moves from sitting to lying on stomach
  • Stands with support

9-11 months

  • Sits alone with trunk rotation
  • Pivots and scoots in sitting
  • Creeps or crawls
  • Pulls to stand
  • Cruises
  • Stands alone momentarily

12-15 months

  • Crawls
  • Walks independently without support
  • Able to stand without support
  • Creeps up stairs
  • Able to start, stop and turn without falling while walking
  • Crawls up on chairs or other furniture
  • Runs

16-18 months

  • Walks up one step at a time with hand held or railing
  • Creeps down stairs
  • Walks with heel-toe pattern, seldom falls
  • Walks sideways and backwards
  • Runs stiffly
  • Stands on one foot with help
  • Kicks large ball forward after demonstration
  • Manages riding toys
  • Good balance and coordination

19-24 months

  • Walks down one step at a time with rail or hand holding
  • Squats in play and stands back up
  • Jumps in place
  • Kicks a stationary ball
  • Jumps off 12 inch box with 1 foot leading
  • Walks on balance beam with 1 foot on/ 1 foot off
  • Walks up and down stairs alone

24-29 months

  • Walks on balance beam with one hand held
  • Stands on balance beam alone
  • Walks up stairs one step at a time with no railing
  • Runs well
  • Stands on one foot, briefly
  • Jumps from one step with feet together
  • Throws ball overhead
  • Climbs on play equipment-ladders, slides, etc.

2-3 years

  • Walks down stairs step by step without railing
  • Balances on one foot 2-3 seconds
  • Jumps forward at least one foot
  • Walks on balance beam alone
  • Walks on tip toe when asked

3-4 years

  • Walks on balance beam sideways
  • Catches a bounced ball
  • Rides a tricycle
  • Hops on one foot 2-5 times
  • Balances on one foot 2-5 seconds
  • Consecutive jumping
  • Walks up stairs step over step alone

4-5 years

  • Balances on one foot 4-8 seconds
  • Walks on balance beam in all directions
  • Walks down stairs step over step alone
  • Kicks a rolling ball
  • Catches large and small ball with outstretched arm
  • Throws a small ball overhand

5-6 years

  • Balances on one foot 10 seconds
  • Skips
  • Rides a bike with or without training wheels
  • Begins to jump rope
  • Hops on one foot ten times
  • Catches bounced or thrown ball with hands
  • Walks on heals when asked
  • Swings on swing, pumping by self